Decorator takes a function as an argument, adds some functionality and returns it. Generally, decorators are used when we need to add some functionality to the existing code.
Numpy is python library that provides computation on large array elements and matrices. Numpy provides fast and efficient processing on n-dimensional arrays. Array elements in numpy are stored in continuous memory location so that the processing of element is fast and efficeint, unlike in list where the elements are stored in random memory location.
PDF(Portable Document Format) is the file format developed by Adobe in the 1990s. At the present time, we all are familiared with its huge popularity in read-only documents. In python, there are lots of packages availabe in PyPI for extracting text from pdf like pdfplumber, pdfminer, pypdf2, slate, pdfquery, xpdf, tectract and so on.
As the name implies data structure are structures that holds some related data. Python has built-in data structure such as list, tuple, dictionary and set. These all data structures are used to store the data.
Turtle module is a part of the standard python installation which provides a drawing board so that we can draw all over it using turtle methods. It is a popular way for introducing programming to kids. It was part of the original Logo programming language developed by Wally Feurzeig, Seymour Papert and Cynthia Solomon in 1967.
map() and filter() are built-in function in python library. These functions are generally written in one line and allows programmer to optimize the code length. Both map() and filter() function returns the map and filter object respectively. Both the function operates on iterables with a specified function. Generally lambda function is used instead of normal python function. While reduce() function resides on python 'functools' module.